Explanation about the Periodical Historical Atlas of Europe - 2
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Historical Atlas of Europe
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Explanation 2


Names of entities mentioned in the Periodical Historical Atlas are those officially used at the considered time. When the latter are not known or when sources are contradictory, I have applied the names mentionned by sources close to the depicted region and to the century of the map. In cases where such information isn't available, a short circumlocution names such an entity. Last, notably for nomad populations, I have used the names by which those peoples were commonly described in the 20th century.

According to knowledge existing in the second half of 20th century, only effective borders were drawn. This means that territories nominaly subjected to a state without any real control on it are merely inserted in the area of the ruling country.  An edge of same color as that of the dominant power surrounds such a territory and its official name is written in dark grey whereas the main name is black.
To simplify matters, one can say that borders are lines someone cannot cross without difficulty at the considered century.

Three kinds of entities are shown:
1) Independent states, that are possessing these four features simultaneously:
a) a territory delimited by borders,
b) a population,
c) an authority exercising the effective public power on population and territory,
d) supremacy, that is with capacity to control absolutely the (a) territory and the (b) population.
Such states are drawn in plain color and their names are written in black. They may be divided in parts, with names in red italics. These parts may contain sub-parts, counties or provinces etc., with names in grey italics. Borders of parts are broken brown lines with white edging and borders of sub-parts are mere brown broken lines.
2) Dependent states that are possessing:
a) a territory delimited by borders,
b) a population,
c) an authority subject to an higher-level authority. Such a dependency may be the result of an union with a stronger country, a legal link or a military occupation.
These entities are drawn with their proper color which appears plain when they are independent but, here, is surrounded by a strip of the same color as the dominant state. Their names are marked in plain grey fonts while the main name is written in black. Dependent states are sometimes including sub-parts whose names are printed in grey italics.
Dependency may be the result of many kinds of reasons. I have tried to consider only effective dependency. In spite of this, many complex cases are left. The most common are those where a country X claims lordship over a country Y while the latter maintains to be free and sources are not very clear. When the state Y does not rule the state X according to him, it is drawn as dependent.
3) Not well-known or nomadic populations. Their names are written in dark grey italics on white, grey areas or shaded with grey areas.

Graduate colors towards white or another color are often used. This shows uncertain boundaries
On all maps, names are written in latin from AD 1 to AD 500 and in english from AD 600 on.

Christos Nüssli, August 2002
The maps of the PERIODICAL HISTORICAL ATLAS shown on the website www.euratlas.com can be printed with copyright mention, for personal use or for education purpose in state-owned schools. In no case these maps can be sold or used for commercial aims. The source must be cited in the following way:
© Christos Nüssli 2002, www.euratlas.com

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